ANNEX 11: RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION APPLICATIONS

Scope of annex
This annex covers frequency bands and regulatory as well as informative parameters recommended for radio frequency identification (RFID) applications including for example automatic article identification, asset tracking, alarm systems, waste management, personal identification, access control, proximity sensors, anti-theft systems, location systems, data transfer to handheld devices and wireless control systems. It should be noted that other types of RFID systems can be operated in accordance with other relevant annexes.

Frequency Band Power / Magnetic Field Spectrum access and mitigation requirements Modulation / maximum occupied bandwidth ECC/ERC Deliverable Notes
a1 865MHz  -  865.6MHz
100 mW e.r.p. No requirement ≤ 200 kHz (note 3)
a 865MHz  -  868MHz
2 W e.r.p. (note1) (note 4) ≤ 200 kHz Operation only when necessary to perform the intended operation, i.e. when RFID tags are expected to be present. The frequency band is also identified in Annexes 1, 2 and 3.
a2 865.6MHz  -  867.6MHz
2 W e.r.p. No requirement ≤ 200 kHz (note 3)
a3 867.6MHz  -  868MHz
500 mW e.r.p. No requirement ≤ 200 kHz (note 3)
b 915MHz  -  921MHz
4 W e.r.p. (notes 2 and 6) No requirement ≤ 400 kHz (note 5) Operation only when necessary to perform the intended operation, i.e. when RFID tags are expected to be present. The frequency band is also identified in Annexes 1, 2 and 3.
c2 2446MHz  -  2454MHz
> 500 mW to 4 W e.i.r.p ≤ 15% duty cycle FHSS techniques should be used Not specified Power levels above 500 mW are restricted to be used inside the boundaries of a building and the duty cycle of all transmissions shall in this case be ≤ 15 % in any 200 ms period (30 ms on /170 ms off)
c1 2446MHz  -  2454MHz
≤ 500 mW e.i.r.p. No requirement Not specified

Note 1 Interrogator transmissions in sub-band a) at 2 W e.r.p. are only permitted within the four channels centred at 865.7 MHz, 866.3 MHz, 866.9 MHz and 867.5 MHz; each with a maximum bandwidth of 200 kHz. RFID tags respond at a very low power level (-20 dBm e.r.p.) in a frequency range around the RFID interrogator channels.
Note 2 Interrogator transmissions in sub-band b) at 4 W e.r.p, are only permitted within the three channels centred at 916.3 MHz, 917.5 MHz and 918.7 MHz; each with a maximum bandwidth of 400 kHz. RFID tags respond at a very low power level (-10 dBm e.r.p.) in a frequency range around the RFID interrogator channels.
Note 3 RFID interrogator devices placed on the market before the repeal date of EC Decision 2006/804/EC are ‘grandfathered’, i.e. they are continuously permitted to be used in line with the provisions set out in EC Decision 2006/804/EC (see sub-bands a1), a2), and a3)) before the repeal date.
Note 4 The maximum period of continuous interrogator transmission on a channel shall not exceed 4s and the period between consecutive transmissions of an interrogator on the same channel shall be at least 100ms in order to ensure most efficient use of available channels for the general benefit of all users.
Note 5 In some countries, usage may be limited such that installation and operation are performed only by professional users and individual authorisation may be required, e.g. to administer geographical sharing and/or the application of mitigation techniques to ensure protection of radio services.
Note 6 Existing implementations in some countries include a fourth RFID interrogator channel at centre frequency 919.9 MHz. See explanations under frequency issues for sub-bands b).

Additional Information

Harmonised Standards
EN 300 440 Sub-bands c1) and c2) EN 302 208 Sub-bands a) and b)

Technical parameters also referred to in the harmonised standard
Sub-band a): In addition, antenna beamwidth limits shall be observed as described in the standard EN 302 208. Sub-band c2): In addition, antenna beamwidth limits shall be observed as described in the standard EN 300 440. In addition, for an RFID device which can exceed 500 mW, the device should be fitted with an automatic power control to reduce the radiated power below 500 mW; this automatic power control shall guarantee the reduction of the power to a maximum of 500 mW in cases where the device is moved and used outside the boundary of the user's building or premises as described above.

Frequency issues
Sub-bands a1), a2) and a3): Channel centre frequencies are 864.9 MHz + (0.2 MHz * channel number). The available channel numbers for each sub-band are: a1: channel numbers 1 to 3 a2: channel numbers 4 to 13 a3: channel numbers 14 to 15. Note: The same equipment is allowed to operate in several sub-bands. Frequency hopping or other spread spectrum techniques shall not be used. Sub-band b): Use of all or part of the sub-band b) may be limited or not authorised in some countries that use all or part of this sub-band for defence/governmental systems. Further, some countries use the sub-band 918-921 MHz as extended GSM-R frequency band; therefore geographical restrictions may apply. See Appendixes 1 and 3 for national implementation concerning extended GSM-R and defence/governmental services. CEPT is considering a harmonised spectrum regulatory framework for the future railway mobile communications systems in 874.4-880 / 919.4-925 MHz and these frequency bands may require a review regarding their use in the future. Some countries have existing implementations for an RFID interrogator channel centred at 919.9 MHz. Appendixes 1 and 3 provide the status of national implementations. CEPT administrations should provide information on any more restrictive or more relaxed national measures to ensure Appendixes 1 and 3 are up to date. EC Decision 2018/1538/EU applies to EU Member States. CEPT administrations should refrain from introducing new RFID uses in 919.4-921 MHz. It is recognised that, in several CEPT countries, existing RFID implementations in this frequency range are not impacted by Article 3(4) of the EC Decision. National rules, such as local coordination, may also be needed in order to avoid interference to radio services operating in the adjacent bands. Sub-band c2): To assist enforcement authorities any emissions from an RFID device when measured outside of the building at a distance of 10 metres shall not exceed the field strength from a 500 mW RFID device mounted outside the building when measured at the same distance. Where a building consists of a number of premises, such as shops within a shopping arcade or Mall then the measurements shall be referenced to the boundary of the user’s premises within the building.